It is a province of Turkey and the third most populous city. Its population is 4,39It is geographically located in the west of Turkey and the entire province is located in the Aegean Region. It is the twenty third largest city in the country in terms of face measurement.4,694 as of 2020.
Ephesus, one of the most famous cities of Antiquity, was one of the largest cities in the world during the Roman imperial period. Ephesus, which embodied the richness of all Ionian culture, was also known for intense artistic activities. For this purpose, this city was called "Beautiful Izmir", "Old Izmir" and "la Perle de l'Ionie" (Pearl of Ionia).
Izmir Port is the seventh largest port in Turkey.
The name we use as İzmir today is the transformed form of the word Smyrna. It is also claimed that earlier forms of the word Smyrna are Smira, Lesmira, Zmirra, Ismira, Samorna or Smurna. It is thought that the presence of a sanctuary near the place where the city was founded was influential in the use of the word Smyrna. It is claimed that this sanctuary is the Halkapınar spring and the pond formed by this spring. The name Smyrna / İzmir is thought to be related to the meanings of Mother Goddess Spring / Pond or at least Mother Goddess / Holy Mother.
Although the information about the date and place of the foundation of İzmir is controversial, it is accepted that the historical site, which is located in Bayraklı district and known as Tepekule, is the founding place of the old İzmir.
Researches show that İzmir is an Aeolian city. Although it was within the domain of the Hittite Empire for a period (2000-1200 BC), it is known that its characteristic of being the city of Aiol continued until the Ionians conquered the city. Around 800 B.CIonians, who wanted to expand their commercial activities to the end of the Izmir Bay, captured this Aeolian city on their borders. The capture of Izmir by the Ionians, who had a well-functioning trade network through their overseas colonies, caused a rapid transformation in the history of the city. The city grew rich and developed in a short time through trade.
The wealth of the city mobilized the neighboring Lydians and they went to war with the people of Izmir. BC. In 610-600 BC, the Lydian armies managed to capture the city. The Lydians then destroyed the city. However, the people of Izmir managed to rebuild their city.
The collapse of old Izmir is one of the results of the Persian invasion in Anatolia. As a result of the attack of the Persian armies. İzmir was destroyed in 545 BC. After this destruction, a settlement in urban order could not be formed in the settlement area in Bayraklı. The most important legacy remaining from this first period of Izmir is the city itself. The ruins in Bayraklı are being revealed more and more every day with the excavations. In the studies conducted so far, it has been understood that the city has a grid plan (a structure built with streets crossing each other perpendicularly).
The re-establishment of İzmir is linked to Macedonian Alexandros, who is known as Alexander the Great. Alexander the Great at the beginning of his Iran expedition. After defeating the army of the Persian Empire in Anatolia in 334 B.C, he advanced on Ephesus with his armies. When he came to the Izmir region during this operation, according to the legend, he wanted the new Izmir to be established on Pagos Mountain after a dream he saw around Kadifekale (Pagos Mountain).
The new city stretched from the Kadifekale slopes towards the sea. The existence of the city was also closely related to maritime trade. Because the area where the city was located was between the place where Kadifekale is and the natural harbor consisting of a small bay. The city will essentially be a settlement created by this natural harbor and its future will be shaped by the vitality of this port.
İzmir, At the beginning of the 3rd B.C. , on the advice of Ephesians, he was accepted to the union between Ionian cities as a thirteenth member. İzmir, which was later connected to the Kingdom of Pergamon, BC. King of Pergamon III in 133 B.C , When he joined the Roman Empire in accordance with Attalos's will, he became a part of the Roman lands together with the other Ionian cities. It is seen that İzmir gradually gained importance during the Roman period and started to develop its feature as a commercial city.
Roman Empire AD It split in two in 395. In this division, Anatolia, and therefore İzmir, took place within the lands of Eastern Rome. With the collapse of Western Rome in 476 AD, Eastern Rome became the ruler of the region. İzmir continued its existence as an important commercial city.
The attacks of the Sassanids in 608 were followed by the Arab invasions that would continue for a while starting from 637. During the Umayyad expedition in 665, Izmir was conquered by the Arabs.
,Eastern Roman rule in the city has become controversial in the second half of the 10th century. It is known that Izmir changed hands several times between the Eastern Roman Empire and
* Agora* Smyrna (Tepekule- Flag)
*Ephesus (Selcuk) * Pergamon (Bergama)
*Red Courtyard (Serapeion) (Bergama)
*Erythrai (Ildırı) (Çeşme) *Klaros (Mendres) * Klazomenai (Urla) * Metropolis (Torbalı) * Teos (Seferihisar)
*Ulucak Mound (Kemalpasa) *Lebedos (Menderes)
* Kolophon (Değirmendere- Menderes) *Larissa (Menemen)
* Notion (Menderes) Mosques Masjids
Fountains, Fountains, Fountains
Aqueducts and Bridges
Baths museums can be visited in Izmir